OWASP Cyber Controls Matrix (OCCM)
Solve the problem of multiple cyber standards by consolidating them, reducing timelines and effort by months. The OCCM does this and much more!
The OWASP Cyber Controls Matrix (OCCM) is an innovation in the mapping of cyber controls across different control sets, frameworks, and standards for the purposes of increased knowledge, greater efficiency, and shortened timelines.
- Implementing cyber controls.
- Knowledge | Levels of Detail | Relevance
- Implementing two or more cyber control sets / frameworks.
- Consolidation | Knowledge | Levels of Detail | Relevance | Growth
- Research and education on cyber topics.
- Knowledge | Cyber Taxonomy | Levels of Detail | Relevance | Growth
- Integration into cyber products.
- Consolidation | Knowledge | Cyber Taxonomy | Levels of Detail | Relevance | Growth
Most organizations today must comply with two or more standards in their quest for enhanced Cybersecurity and compliance. This has traditionally been a very linear process, but the OCCM transforms it into a much more parallel one: de-duplicating effort. This can reduce project duration and effort by months. The OCCM means less time implementing, less time documenting, better results, and no more backtracking.
Supercharging Cybersecurity knowledge, the OCCM points cyber analysts to the guidance, insights, references, and best practices available across all standards. This greatly improves understanding of how to implement and document controls, resulting in improved security and improved audit outcomes. Gaps between standards are identified, enabling more comprehensive implementations. Costly mistakes are avoided thanks to visibility of other standards; ensuring that decisions also satisfy future security needs, not just the immediate ones.
There is a multi-level cyber taxonomy at the core of the OCCM, to which all the control relationships are normalized. As a result, the mappings are more consistent, objective, organized, and reliable. No more vague groupings of controls or mysterious “black box” mappings. In the OCCM, it is clear how and why each control is related. Furthermore, the OCCM Cyber Taxonomy facilitates easy research of cyber topics and objectives across all standards.
Levels of Detail
Controls in the OCCM are included at all available levels and each of those controls is normalized to three separate levels of detail in the OCCM Cyber Taxonomy. Audit checks are also supported. This ensures a comprehensive mapping that dives deep into the control set / framework, versus the surface mappings common in the industry that only indicate top-level controls.
Every Control entry in the OCCM is given one Control Level and is assigned one or more groups of High Level, Medium Level, and Low Level Topics in the OCCM Cyber Taxonomy.
Control Levels for Each Control
- Control Families / Headings
- Top-Level Controls
Mapping Levels of Detail for Each Control
- High Level Topics (Areas)
- ex. “Disaster Recovery” within a Control stating “Ensure there is a Disaster Recovery (H) Policy (M) that identifies Roles and Responsibilities (L) and Mission-Critical Environments (L).”
- Medium Level Topics (Objects)
- ex. “Policy” within a Control stating “Ensure there is a Disaster Recovery (H) Policy (M) that identifies Roles and Responsibilities (L) and Mission-Critical Environments (L).”
- Low Level Topics (Targets)
- ex. “Roles and Responsibilities” within a Control stating “Ensure there is a Disaster Recovery (H) Policy (M) that identifies Roles and Responsibilities (L) and Mission-Critical Environments (L).”
- ex. “Mission-Critical Environments” within a Control stating “Ensure there is a Disaster Recovery (H) Policy (M) that identifies Roles and Responsibilities (L) and Mission-Critical Environments (L).”
- High Level Topics (Areas)
Control relationships in the OCCM are directly mapped and viewable at the three separate levels of detail, resolving the fundamental issues of too-strict or too-loose mapping. Each individual control in the OCCM relates directly to other controls (“one-to-many”), instead of the common industry practice of grouping controls together (“many-to-many”). This common practice results in a handshake problem, where every control in group “A” is mapped to every other control in group “B”.
For example, the group mapping “A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 -> B1, B2, B3, B4, B5” generates 25 total relationships! This requires analysis of 5 relationships per “A” control, some of which may have little to no direct relevance.
Using the OCCM, this example can be greatly simplified and reduced to…
- High Level Mapping “A1 -> B1, B2, B3” [3 relationships]
- Medium Level Mapping “A1 -> B1, B2” [2 relationships]
- Low Level Mapping “A1 -> B1” [1 relationship]
The OCCM has been designed with the principles of easy contribution, accelerated growth, and continuous improvement. Once a new control is added and normalized, it is automatically mapped to every other control across all standards. There is no longer a need for an analyst to search for a mapping between two different standards or create their own. Every standard in the OCCM is automatically mapped to every other standard, exponentially increasing its scope.
"Complying with multiple cybersecurity frameworks is one of the top challenges we’ve heard from our Member organizations."
(Center for Internet Security, 3/2020)
"... multiple frameworks are often needed, but the task of managing them becomes almost impossible to implement."
(CSO Online, 7/2010)
"One major challenge compliance teams ran into again and again is that they tended to do a lot of duplicative work in order to meet multiple regulatory standards."
"Pursuing multiple frameworks at the same time can overwhelm founders, especially without expert guidance."
"Between 2010 and 2020, hundreds of new cyber regulations, rules, or standards were introduced. This explosion of interest in cybersecurity from regulators has required nearly 98% of companies to comply with two or more cyber compliance standards, while nearly 70% are subject to compliance with more than five."
From the Creator / Project Leader
“The capabilities of the OWASP Cyber Controls Matrix are something I have wanted to see my entire career. It is my honor to create it and give it to the entire Cybersecurity industry as an open-source OWASP project. Per the license, I encourage commercial products, non-commercial products, and cyber practitioners to fully incorporate it and contribute back to the project. First and foremost, the OCCM is a community driven effort. All submissions, ideas, promotion, and discourse are greatly appreciated. Thank you for your support!”
– Eric Bragger (LinkedIn) (Email)
Contributions to the OCCM are welcome and appreciated.
Contributors acknowledge that by contributing, copyright for all contributions will be transferred in full to the OWASP Foundation, Inc, the OCCM Creator, and the OCCM Project Leader. Please see the Legal section for further details.
Your Name Here (Your URL Here)
Membership, Donations, and Sponsorship
Please indicate the OWASP Cyber Controls Matrix in membership, donation, and sponsorship comments if you wish to specifically and directly support this project. General contributions to the OWASP Foundation will also support this project and others like it.
All OWASP Projects are run and developed by volunteers and rely on individual memberships, personal donations, and corporate memberships / sponsorships to continue their development. OWASP does not endorse or recommend commercial products or services, allowing our community to remain vendor neutral and focused on applying the collective wisdom of some of the best minds in Cybersecurity worldwide.
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The OWASP Cyber Controls Matrix (OCCM) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) license for free use and adaptation, including commercial and government, with attribution. Additional license terms and conditions, such as indemnification, are detailed within the Required Attribution section text that must be provided with use or distribution of the OCCM.
Copyright & Trademarks
The OWASP Cyber Controls Matrix (OCCM) (https://cybercontrolsmatrix.com) is copyright the OWASP Foundation, Inc. (https://owasp.org) and its creator Eric Bragger (https://www.linkedin.com/in/eric-bragger/). All rights reserved. Control Identifiers (IDs), Control Names, Control Headings, Control Set Names, and Framework Names are copyright their respective owners. “OWASP”™ is trademark the OWASP Foundation, Inc. “Cyber Controls Matrix”™, “OCCM”™, and “OCCM Cyber Taxonomy”™, including their logos and trade dress, are trademark Eric Bragger. All other trademarks belong to their respective owners.
Contributors acknowledge that by contributing, copyright for all contributions will be transferred in full, without any obligation whatsoever expressed or implied, to: the OWASP Foundation, Inc., the OCCM Creator, and the OCCM Project Leader. Contributions may be used, shared, and disseminated at the complete discretion of the OWASP Foundation, Inc., the OCCM Creator, the OCCM Project Leader, and anyone associated with the project whether in an official or non-official capacity. Contributions may include, but are not limited to: information, content, assistance, ideas, software code, submissions, employment, licensing, financial support, marketing, promotion, endorsement, and sponsorship.
Disclaimer & Limitations
The OWASP Cyber Controls Matrix (OCCM) is provided as-is and is used at your own risk with zero expectations. Warranties, liabilities, claims, guarantees, and representation of any kind and for any purpose are fully disclaimed without limitation whether expressed, implied, or statutory with regard to the OCCM, its capabilities, its content, its copyright owners, its creator, any individuals associated with the OCCM, and any aspects of the OCCM. This includes, but is not limited to: negligence; infringement; licensing; fair use; attribution; lack of attribution; completeness; accuracy; applicability; acceptability; availability; correctness; reliability; objectivity; timeliness; practicality; effectiveness; fitness; merchantability; results obtained; claims; expectations; title; damages; losses; and use of, or inability to use, any information, content, or capabilities associated with the OCCM.
The OCCM shall always be considered as-is and is provided as-is with zero liability regardless of any claims, suppositions, beliefs, assumptions, expressions, implications, written agreements, or verbal agreements. The OCCM, its copyright owner, its creator, and any individuals associated with the project shall not be liable, under any circumstances, for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, or consequential damages concerning the OCCM, anything associated with the OCCM, individual associated with the OCCM, or any aspects of the OCCM whether in an official or non-official capacity. Liability shall not be accepted concerning any attribution, lack of attribution, or failure to remove attribution for contributions or contributors. Liability shall not be accepted concerning any third-party use, inclusion, reference, or claims. Liability shall not be accepted for any reason; expressed, implied, or statutory.
The OCCM in part or whole (including, but not limited to: its content and capabilities) is comprised of data, software code, subjective opinions, contributions, statements, descriptions, and other content; any or all of which may be in error for any reason including negligence and are not to be construed as objective, correct, accurate, informed, complete, reasonable, reliable, factual, or effective. The OCCM, its copyright owners, its creator, and any individuals associated with the OCCM do not make any warranty or representation of fitness or merchantability for any purpose.
You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold harmless the OCCM, its copyright owners, its creator, any individuals associated with it, and any aspects of it from any and all claims, liabilities, and expenses (including attorney fees, court fees, process costs, fines, damages, and any other losses) arising out of your use of the OCCM, interaction with the OCCM, any individuals associated with the OCCM, and any aspects of the OCCM; with no expectations whatsoever and regardless of disclosures, claims, discoveries, process, suits, or proceedings.
The Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) license provides further important disclaimers, limitations, and legal text that also applies to the OCCM.
|20200612||Release of Reference Materials: OCCM Control Set for MITRE ATT&CK Enterprise v6.3|
|20200604||Release of Reference Materials: OCCM Control Sets for NIST 800-53r5 FPD and NIST 800-53r4|
The OCCM Mapping is currently in pre-release.
Please see the Roadmap tab for the planned release schedule.
OCCM Reference Material
|1.0||20200612||XLS||OCCM Control Set for MITRE ATT&CK Enterprise v6.3 (20191024)||Comprehensive spreadsheet of Tactics, Techniques, Mitigations, APT Groups, and Malicious Software.|
Does not contain mapping.
|1.0||20200612||OCCM Control Set for MITRE ATT&CK Enterprise v6.3 (20191024)||Comprehensive spreadsheet of Tactics, Techniques, Mitigations, APT Groups, and Malicious Software.|
Does not contain mapping.
|1.0||20200604||XLS||OCCM Control Set for NIST SP 800-53 rev. 5 Final Public Draft||Improved version of the official NIST spreadsheet.|
Does not contain mapping.
|1.0||20200604||OCCM Control Set for NIST SP 800-53 rev. 5 Final Public Draft||Improved version of the official NIST spreadsheet.|
Does not contain mapping.
|1.0||20200604||XLS||OCCM Control Set for NIST SP 800-53 rev. 4||Improved version of the official NIST NVD spreadsheet.|
Does not contain mapping.
|1.0||20200604||OCCM Control Set for NIST SP 800-53 rev. 4||Improved version of the official NIST NVD spreadsheet.|
Does not contain mapping.
X = Done O = Ongoing
|X||Q2 2020||Webpage||Initial Project Webpage|
|X||Q2 2020||Webpage||Domain and Email Configuration|
|X||Q2 2020||Webpage||Mailing List for News / Releases with Survey|
|X||Q2 2020||Webpage||Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) tab|
|X||Q2 2020||Webpage||Project Logo|
|X||Q2 2020||Reference Material||OCCM Control Set: NIST SP 800-53 Rev. 4|
|X||Q2 2020||Reference Material||OCCM Control Set: NIST SP 800-53 Rev. 5 Final Public Draft|
|X||Q2 2020||Reference Material||OCCM Control Set: MITRE ATT&CK Enterprise v6.3|
|O||Q2 2020||Webpage||Key Benefits and Key Features tabs|
|O||Q2 2020||Webpage||Graphics for Key Benefits and Key Features|
|O||Q2 2020||Normalization||Pre-populate Cyber Taxonomy per NIST, CIS, OWASP, and other sources|
|X||Q2 2020||Webpage||Guidance for Contributors [on Github]|
|O||Q2 2020||Feature||Statistics for Mappings|
|O||Q2 2020||Feature||Support for Official and Third-Party Mappings (to reference against the OCCM mappings)|
|O||Q2 2020||Control Set / Framework||OWASP Top 10|
|Q2 2020||Control Set / Framework||OWASP Proactive Controls (OPC)|
|Q2 2020||Control Set / Framework||OWASP Mobile Top 10|
|Q2 2020||Control Set / Framework||CIS Controls (Top 20 and Sub-Controls)|
|Q3 2020||Documentation||Instructions for Use (HTML, PDF, PPT)|
|Q3 2020||Control Set / Framework||DoD CMMC|
|Q3 2020||Control Set / Framework||NIST SP 800-171 (DFARS 252.204-7012)|
|Q3 2020||Control Set / Framework||NIST CSF|
|Q3 2020||Control Set / Framework||SOC 2 (AICPA TSC)|
|Q3 2020||Control Set / Framework||CWE Top 25|
|Q4 2020||Control Set / Framework||OWASP Application Security Verification Standard (ASVS)|
|Q4 2020||Control Set / Framework||ISO/IEC 27001 / ISO/IEC 27002|
|Q4 2020||Control Set / Framework||ISO/IEC 27017|
|Q4 2020||Control Set / Framework||ISO/IEC 27018|
|Q4 2020||Control Set / Framework||ISO/IEC 27701|
|Q4 2020||Control Set / Framework||ISO/IEC 22301|
|Q1 2021||Control Set / Framework||NIST SP 800-53 Rev. 4 High + PM + Privacy / FISMA / OMB-A130|
|Q1 2021||Control Set / Framework||FedRAMP|
|Q1 2021||Control Set / Framework||DoD Cloud SRG|
|Q2 2021||Control Set / Framework||NIST SP 800-53 Rev. 5 [when released]|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||OWASP Software Assurance Maturity Model (SAMM)|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||NIST SP 800-137A|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||MITRE ATT&CK Enterprise|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||MITRE ATT&CK ICS|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||MITRE ATT&CK Mobile|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||CISQ|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||ITAR|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||PCI DSS|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||GDPR|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||CCPA|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||COPPA|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||FERPA|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||ENISA (EU Cybersecurity Act)|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||CSA STAR|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||CIS AWS Foundations|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||CIS Azure Foundations|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||CIS Google Cloud Foundations|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||FFIEC (GLBA/SOX)|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||COSO|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||COBIT|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||HIPAA HITECH Act|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||HIPAA HITRUST CSF|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||NERC CIP|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||ISA-99 (ANSI IACS)|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||MARS-E (ACA / Medicaid / CHIP)|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||IRS Publication 1075|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||CJIS|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||BITS SIG/AUP|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||NY DFS|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||IASME Governance|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||ETSI TC Cyber|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||BSI Germany|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||PIPEDA Canada|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||ISM Australia|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||NZISM New Zealand|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||CERT-RMM|
|Future||Control Set / Framework||[additional cyber compliance, best practice, legal, and regulatory controls]|
|Future||Webpage||Translation into other languages|
|Future||Feature||Baselines and Profiles (i.e. automatically select controls to display)|
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
How can I help the project?
- Glad you asked! Please start by joining the OCCM mailing list and answering the optional questions on that page.
- We’ll eventually have content submission instructions and forms together, but our only priority right now is getting the first release out the door.
When will the first release of the OCCM occur and what will it include?
- Officially TBD, but planned before September.
- Please see the Roadmap tab for an evolving list of target content.
- Please also join the OCCM mailing list to be notified of OCCM-specific news and releases.
- The OCCM project launched on May 11, 2020. Core functionality is operational (schema and code for automated mapping). It just takes time to create the initial Cybersecurity Taxonomy and normalize hundreds of Controls across the first Control Sets.
Will the OCCM map controls between [Some-Control-Set] and [Some-Other-Control-Set]?
- Yes, as long as both Control Sets are in the OCCM.
- The OCCM automatically maps all Controls Sets to every other Control Set.
- That’s the power of normalizing each Control to the OCCM Cyber Taxonomy.
- Please see the Roadmap tab for an evolving list of forthcoming Control Sets.
Will the OCCM automate control selection, documentation, and other aspects of my program?
- No. The OCCM is a documentation project driven by code and rich data. Its singular focus is to provide valuable information to assist in implementing and complying with cyber controls across multiple standards / control sets / frameworks.
- However, we hope that all types of software will use and leverage the OCCM. The OCCM and its content is a gift to the cyber industry; freely licensed for commercial, non-commercial, and government use; with the only stipulation being required attribution.
How is the OCCM different from solutions that use Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), and Natural Language Processing (NLP)?
- The OCCM is complementary to AI/ML/NLP solutions. Each can be used to improve the other.
- At this time, we are not aware of any publicly available AI/ML/NLP control mappings. We have only seen academic papers, statistical analysis, and commercial software features. Please (email) if you know of any AI/ML/NLP source that provides actual mappings.
- The OCCM content comes from cyber expert analysis, whereas AI/ML/NLP are based upon mathematical models. Both techniques have varying accuracy, biases, missing control relationships (false negatives) and mapping controls that shouldn’t be (false positives).
- AI/ML/NLP approaches excel at discovering patterns among large amounts of data.
- The OCCM approach excels at applying human intuition, cyber expertise, and context to small amounts of data; utilizing the power of normalization (categorizing) to apply this to large amounts of data.
How is the OCCM different from the Secure Controls Framework (SCF)?
- The approach of the OCCM is implementing and documenting the target control set while leveraging information from relevant controls in other control sets.
- The approach of the SCF is implementing and documenting SCF controls (the meta-framework) as a baseline for compliance with other control sets. In other words, the SCF attempts to provide a universal control set with good coverage of other control sets. Of course, the SCF is unable to capture every specific requirement and guidance in those control sets, which is where control mapping from the SCF controls to the target controls is needed and provided.
- Whether using the OCCM or a meta-framework like the SCF, working directly on a control set is currently the only way to ensure all requirements are fully met for audit and certification.
- The OCCM provides transparency via the OCCM Cyber Taxonomy on why a specific control has been mapped at each level of detail (High, Medium, and Low); whereas the SCF mapping reason can only be inferred by analyzing the content of the SCF control and the SCF-provided mapping for that control.
- The OCCM directly maps from one Control Set to all others (i.e. NIST->ISO). The SCM indirectly maps between Control Sets (i.e. NIST->SCF->ISO), except in the case that only SCF controls are being mapped (i.e. SCF->ISO).
- The SCF license “No Derivatives” condition may hinder use in products and research, as no modification of the SCF controls can be distributed without being granted exception to the license. The OCCM license has no such hindrance. Both licenses require attribution.
- The SCF is an excellent project and contribution to the industry, just very different in content and use than the OCCM.
|Separate Control Set||No||Yes. SCF Controls are required|
|Approach||Control Set A + Control Set B, etc.||SCF Controls + Control Set A + Control Set B, etc.|
|Mapping Capability||Direct (i.e. NIST->ISO)||Indirect (i.e. NIST->SCF->ISO)|
|Mapping Detail||3 Levels of Detail (High, Medium, Low)||1 Level of Detail|
|Mapping Reason||Specified via OCCM Cyber Taxonomy||Unspecified|
|Maturity Model||Unspecified [control dependent]||SCF Controls [meta-framework dependent]|
|License||Free. CC-BY 4.0||Free. CC-BY-ND 4.0 (No Derivatives)|
|Parent Organization||OWASP Foundation, Inc. [501(c)(3) non-profit]||Secure Controls Framework Council, LLC|
Why the name OWASP Cyber Controls Matrix (OCCM)?
- “OWASP” for the OWASP Foundation hosting and supporting the project.
- “Cyber” because it represents both IT and Cybersecurity. While it is a common buzzword, “cyber” is the only word that represents both.
- “Controls” because these are the individual, measurable items within a control set / framework.
- “Matrix” because the OCCM generates a mapping table between every Control and every other Control. Even though arriving at that table requires a specific process, we did not want any distraction from what OCCM generates by calling it (yet another) a Framework or Methodology.
- Apologies to the CSA Cloud Controls Matrix (CSA CCM). We tried to avoid using “CCM” in our acronym. We really did. The reasons above were too compelling. At least we’re “OCCM”.