WSTG - Stable

Testing for Bypassing Authorization Schema

ID
WSTG-ATHZ-02

Summary

This kind of test focuses on verifying how the authorization schema has been implemented for each role or privilege to get access to reserved functions and resources.

For every specific role the tester holds during the assessment, for every function and request that the application executes during the post-authentication phase, it is necessary to verify:

  • Is it possible to access that resource even if the user is not authenticated?
  • Is it possible to access that resource after the log-out?
  • Is it possible to access functions and resources that should be accessible to a user that holds a different role or privilege?

Try to access the application as an administrative user and track all the administrative functions.

  • Is it possible to access administrative functions also if the tester is logged as a user with standard privileges?
  • Is it possible to use these administrative functions as a user with a different role and for whom that action should be denied?

How to Test

Testing for Access to Administrative Functions

For example, suppose that the AddUser.jsp function is part of the administrative menu of the application, and it is possible to access it by requesting the following URL:

https://www.example.com/admin/addUser.jsp

Then, the following HTTP request is generated when calling the AddUser function:

POST /admin/addUser.jsp HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.com
[other HTTP headers]

userID=fakeuser&role=3&group=grp001

What happens if a non-administrative user tries to execute that request? Will the user be created? If so, can the new user use their privileges?

Testing for Access to Resources Assigned to a Different Role

For example analyze an application that uses a shared directory to store temporary PDF files for different users. Suppose that documentABC.pdf should be accessible only by the user test1 with roleA. Verify if user test2 with roleB can access that resource.

Testing for Special Request Header Handling

Some applications support non-standard headers such as X-Original-URL or X-Rewrite-URL in order to allow overriding the target URL in requests with the one specified in the header value.

This behavior can be leveraged in a situation in which the application is behind a component that applies access control restriction based on the request URL.

The kind of access control restriction based on the request URL can be, for example, blocking access from Internet to an administration console exposed on /console or /admin.

To detect the support for the header X-Original-URL or X-Rewrite-URL, the following steps can be applied.

1. Send a Normal Request without Any X-Original-Url or X-Rewrite-Url Header

GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.com
[other standard HTTP headers]

2. Send a Request with an X-Original-Url Header Pointing to a Non-Existing Resource

GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.com
X-Original-URL: /donotexist1
[other standard HTTP headers]

3. Send a Request with an X-Rewrite-Url Header Pointing to a Non-Existing Resource

GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.com
X-Rewrite-URL: /donotexist2
[other standard HTTP headers]

If the response for either request contains markers that the resource was not found, this indicates that the application supports the special request headers. These markers may include the HTTP response status code 404, or a “resource not found” message in the response body.

Once the support for the header X-Original-URL or X-Rewrite-URL was validated then the tentative of bypass against the access control restriction can be leveraged by sending the expected request to the application but specifying a URL “allowed” by the front-end component as the main request URL and specifying the real target URL in the X-Original-URL or X-Rewrite-URL header depending on the one supported. If both are supported then try one after the other to verify for which header the bypass is effective.

Tools