Embedding Null Code

Author: Nsrav

Contributor(s): Till Maas, ADubhlaoich

Description

The Embedding NULL Bytes/characters technique exploits applications that don’t properly handle postfix NULL terminators. This technique can be used to perform other attacks such as directory browsing, path traversal, SQL injection, execution of arbitrary code, and others. It can be found in lots of vulnerable applications and there are lots of exploits available to abuse systems.

This technique includes several variations to represent the postfix NULL terminator:

PATH%00
PATH[0x00]
PATH[alternate representation of NULL character]
<script></script>%00

Examples

PHP Script

The following example shows the use of this technique to modify a URL and access arbitrary files on a filesystem due a PHP script vulnerability.

$whatever = addslashes($_REQUEST['whatever']);
include("/path/to/program/" . $whatever . "/header.htm");

By manipulating the URL using postfix NULL bytes, one can access the UNIX password file:

http://vuln.example.com/phpscript.php?whatever=../../../etc/passwd%00

Adobe PDF ActiveX Attack

Another attacks consists of exploitating buffer overflow in ActiveX components (pdf.ocx) to allow remote code execution.

The attack occurs when a link is requested as follows:

GET /some_dir/file.pdf.pdf%00[long string] HTTP/1.1

This exploit can be used against a web server that truncates the request at the null byte %00, such as Microsoft IIS and Netscape Enterprise web servers. Though the requested URI is truncated when locating the file, the full string is still passed to the Adobe ActiveX component. It then triggers a buffer overflow within RTLHeapFree(), allowing an attacker to overwrite arbitrary memory.

It can be performed by adding malicious content to the end of any embedded link that references a Microsoft IIS or Netscape Enterprise web server.

External References

http://capec.mitre.org/data/definitions/52.html

http://nvd.nist.gov/nvd.cfm?cvename=CVE-2004-0629