Source Code Analysis Tools
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Source code analysis tools, also referred to as Static Application Security Testing (SAST) Tools, are designed to analyze source code and/or compiled versions of code to help find security flaws.
Some tools are starting to move into the IDE. For the types of problems that can be detected during the software development phase itself, this is a powerful phase within the development life cycle to employ such tools, as it provides immediate feedback to the developer on issues they might be introducing into the code during code development itself. This immediate feedback is very useful, especially when compared to finding vulnerabilities much later in the development cycle.
Strengths and Weaknesses
- Scales well – can be run on lots of software, and can be run repeatedly (as with nightly builds or continuous integration)
- Useful for things that such tools can automatically find with high confidence, such as buffer overflows, SQL Injection Flaws, and so forth
- Output is good for developers – highlights the precise source files, line numbers, and even subsections of lines that are affected
- Many types of security vulnerabilities are difficult to find automatically, such as authentication problems, access control issues, insecure use of cryptography, etc. The current state of the art only allows such tools to automatically find a relatively small percentage of application security flaws. However, tools of this type are getting better.
- High numbers of false positives.
- Frequently can’t find configuration issues, since they are not represented in the code.
- Difficult to ‘prove’ that an identified security issue is an actual vulnerability.
- Many of these tools have difficulty analyzing code that can’t be compiled. Analysts frequently can’t compile code because they don’t have the right libraries, all the compilation instructions, all the code, etc.
Important Selection Criteria
- Requirement: Must support your programming language, but not usually a key factor once it does.
- Types of vulnerabilities it can detect (out of the OWASP Top Ten?) (plus more?)
- How accurate is it? False Positive/False Negative rates?
- Does the tool have an OWASP Benchmark score?
- Does it understand the libraries/frameworks you use?
- Does it require a fully buildable set of source?
- Can it run against binaries instead of source?
- Can it be integrated into the developer’s IDE?
- How hard is it to setup/use?
- Can it be run continuously and automatically?
- License cost for the tool. (Some are sold per user, per org, per app, per line of code analyzed. Consulting licenses are frequently different than end user licenses.)
OWASP Tools Of This Type
- OWASP SonarQube Project
- OWASP Orizon Project
- OWASP LAPSE Project
- OWASP O2 Platform
- OWASP WAP-Web Application Protection
Disclaimer: The tools listed in the tables below are presented in alphabetical order. OWASP does not endorse any of the vendors or tools by listing them in the table below. We have made every effort to provide this information as accurately as possible. If you are the vendor of a tool below and think that this information is incomplete or incorrect, please send an e-mail to our mailing list and we will make every effort to correct this information.
Open Source or Free Tools Of This Type
- Bandit - bandit is a comprehensive source vulnerability scanner for Python
- Brakeman - Brakeman is an open source vulnerability scanner specifically designed for Ruby on Rails applications
- Codesake Dawn - Codesake Dawn is an open source security source code analyzer designed for Sinatra, Padrino for Ruby on Rails applications. It also works on non-web applications written in Ruby
- Deep Dive - Byte code analysis tool for discovering vulnerabilities in Java deployments (Ear, War, Jar).
- FindBugs - (Legacy - NOT Maintained - Use SpotBugs (see below) instead) - Find bugs (including a few security flaws) in Java programs
- FindSecBugs - A security specific plugin for SpotBugs that significantly improves SpotBugs’s ability to find security vulnerabilities in Java programs. Works with the old FindBugs too,
- Flawfinder Flawfinder - Scans C and C++
- GolangCI-Lint - A Go Linters aggregator - One of the Linters is gosec (Go Security), which is off by default but can easily be enabled.
- Uses Google Code Search to identifies vulnerabilities in open source code projects hosted by Google Code, MS CodePlex, SourceForge, Github, and more. The tool comes with over 130 default searches that identify SQL injection, cross-site scripting (XSS), insecure remote and local file includes, hard-coded passwords, and much more. Essentially, Google CodeSearchDiggity provides a source code security analysis of nearly every single open source code project in existence – simultaneously.
- Graudit - Scans multiple languages for various security flaws.
- .NET Security Guard - Roslyn analyzers that aim to help security audits on .NET applications. It will find SQL injections, LDAP injections, XXE, cryptography weakness, XSS and more.
- phpcs-security-audit is a set of PHP_CodeSniffer rules that finds flaws or weaknesses related to security in PHP and its popular CMS or frameworks. It currently has core PHP rules as well as Drupal 7 specific rules.
- PMD - PMD scans Java source code and looks for potential code problems (this is a code quality tool that does not focus on security issues)
- PreFast (Microsoft) - PREfast is a static analysis tool that identifies defects in C/C++ programs. Last update 2006.
- Progpilot - Progpilot is a static analyzer tool for PHP that detects security vulnerabilities such as XSS and SQL Injection.
- Puma Scan - Puma Scan is a .NET C# open source static source code analyzer that runs as an IDE plugin for Visual Studio and via MSBuild in CI pipelines.
- Pyre - A performant type-checker for Python 3, that also has limited security/data flow analysis capabilities.
- RIPS - RIPS Open Source is a static source code analyzer for vulnerabilities in PHP web applications. Please see notes on the sourceforge.net site.
- Sink Tank - Byte code static code analyzer for performing source/sink (taint) analysis.
- SonarQube - Scans source code for more than 20 languages for Bugs, Vulnerabilities, and Code Smells. SonarQube IDE plugins for Eclipse, Visual Studio, and IntelliJ provided by SonarLint.
- SpotBugs - This is the active fork replacement for FindBugs, which is not maintained anymore.
- VisualCodeGrepper (VCG) - Scans C/C++, C#, VB, PHP, Java, and PL/SQL for security issues and for comments which may indicate defective code. The config files can be used to carry out additional checks for banned functions or functions which commonly cause security issues.
GitLab has lashed a free SAST tool for a bunch of different languages natively into GitLab. So you might be able to use that, or at least identify a free SAST tool for the language you need from that list.
An even broader list of free static analysis tools (not just for security) for lots of different languages is here called: Awesome Static Analysis
Commercial Tools Of This Type
- Application Security on Cloud (IBM) - Provides SAST, DAST and mobile security testing as well as OpenSource library known vulnerability detection as a cloud service.
- AppScan Source (IBM)
- bugScout (Nalbatech, Formally Buguroo)
- CAST AIP (CAST) Performs static and architectural analysis to identify numerous types of security issues. Supports over 30 languages. AIP’s security specific coverage is here.
- CodeSonar tool that supports C, C++, Java and C# and maps against the OWASP top 10 vulnerabilities.
- Contrast Assess (Contrast Security) - Contrast performs code security without actually doing static analysis. Contrast does Interactive Application Security Testing (IAST), correlating runtime code & data analysis. It provides code level results without actually relying on static analysis.
- Coverity Code Advisor (Synopsys)
- CxSAST (Checkmarx)
- Fortify (Micro Focus, Formally HP)
- Hdiv Detection (Hdiv Security) - Hdiv performs code security without actually doing static analysis. Hdiv does Interactive Application Security Testing (IAST), correlating runtime code & data analysis. It provides code-level results without actually relying on static analysis.
- Julia (JuliaSoft) - SaaS Java static analysis
- KlocWork (KlocWork)
- Kiuwan (a division of Idera, Inc.) provides an application security testing and analytics platform – including SAST and SCA solutions – that reduces risk and improves change management and DevOps processes
- Parasoft Test (Parasoft)
- PITSS.CON (PITTS)
- Puma Scan Professional - A .NET C# static source code analyzer that runs as a Visual Studio IDE extension, Azure DevOps extension, and Command Line (CLI) executable.
- PVS-Studio (PVS-Studio) - For C/C++, C#
- RIPS Code Analysis (RIPS Technologies)
- A SAST solution specialized for Java and PHP that detects unknown security vulnerabilities and code quality issues.
- Sentinel Source (Whitehat)
- Seeker (Synopsys) Seeker performs code security without actually doing static analysis. Seeker does Interactive Application Security Testing (IAST), correlating runtime code & data analysis with simulated attacks. It provides code level results without actually relying on static analysis.
- SmartDec Scanner (SmartDec) Capable of identifying vulnerabilities and backdoors (undocumented features) in over 30 programming languages by analyzing source code or executables, without requiring debug info.
- Source Patrol (Pentest)
- Thunderscan SAST (DefenseCode)
- Veracode Static Analysis (Veracode)
- Xanitizer - Scans Java and Scala for security vulnerabilities, mainly via taint analysis. Free for academic and open source projects (see 1).
- Appendix A: Testing Tools
- NIST’s list of Source Code Security Analysis Tools
- DAST Tools - Similar info on Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST) Tools
- Free for Open Source Application Security Tools - This page lists the Commercial Source Code Analysis Tools (SAST) we know of that are free for Open Source